DIVe Procedures

Dive Policy

Standards and Procedures




1.0    Introduction

1.1    Definition of a dive

2.0    Kemujan Divers Dive Standards

2.1    Maximum bottom time

2.2    Maximum depth

2.3    Air requirements

2.4    Safety stops

2.5    Surface interval

2.6    Repetitive diving

2.7    Flying after diving

2.8    Over-profiling

2.9    Supervision

2.10  PADI training courses

2.11  All non-training dives and snorkels

3.0    Kemujan Divers Dive Procedures

3.1    General dive and boat procedures

3.2    Emergency procedures

3.3    Missing diver procedures

3.4    Injured diver procedures

3.5    Boat recall procedures

4.0    Dive equipment requirements

4.1    PADI dive training

4.2    Certified divers

5.0    Required safety equipment

6.0    Definitions of Roles and Responsibilities

6.1    Dive Operations Manager

6.2    Dive Instructors

6.3    Divemaster’s and Dive Leaders

6.4    Certified divers

7.0    Insurance

8.0    Night dive specific standards and procedures


1. Introduction

Diving at all Kemujan Divers sites takes place in remote environments with limited access to decompression facilities and emergency medical services (EMS). To minimize risk, it is critical that safety is the primary factor in dive planning during any courses and recreational dives. The minimum standards governing this policy are the PADI standards and general procedures for all sites. The standards and procedures at some of the sites are more stringent to take account of the remoteness from EMS and hyperbaric facilities.

Dive Operations Managers: please bear in mind that this document also covers the safety standards and procedures that must be followed for those volunteers snorkeling at a Kemujan Divers site.


1.1 Definition of a dive

An open water dive is defined as below 5m/15ft for any length of time. Confined water training is defined as not submerging below 5 m/15ft. A deep dive is defined as being below 18m/60ft for any length of time.

Freediving is a specialized form of diving and is not undertaken on  Kemujan Divers sites.


2. Kemujan Divers Dive Standards

The following standards apply to all diving undertaken with Kemujan Divers.


2.1 Maximum bottom time

The maximum surface-to-surface dive time for all open water dives is 50 minutes. Surface-to-surface time allows 2-minute ascent to the safety stop, a minimum of 3 minutes (preferred 5 minutes) for the safety stop and 1 minute to surface. This practice is more conservative than the PADI RDP due to the remote nature of our diving and ensures that inexperienced divers who may struggle with a safety stop will at minimum meet the RDP requirements of 3 minutes at 5 meters. Therefore, the maximum dive time of 50 minutes would equate to 44 minutes bottom time. No maximum dive time is to come within 3 pressure groups of the NDL on the RDP table or 5 minutes on the NDL on a computer. The only exception to this is when diving within the definitions of a confined dive when the bottom time is unlimited.

An additional profile can be used during PADI Open Water training. This profile has an extended surface-to-surface time of 60 minutes. Surface-to-surface time allows 2-minute ascent to the safety stop, 3 minutes for the safety stop and 1 minute to surface. Therefore, the maximum dive time of 60 minutes would equate to 54 minutes bottom time. This allows additional bottom time to complete skills during Open Water training and cannot be used for any other dives. See below for maximum depth limits relating to this specific profile.


2.2 Maximum depth

The maximum depth for a PADI Scuba Diver is 12m. For all qualified Open Water Divers, the maximum depth is 18m/60ft. The only exception to this is for the Advanced Open Water deep dive when the maximum depth is increased to 30m/100ft. The maximum depth for a confined dive is 5m; anything below this depth must be classed as an open water dive.

With regards, the profile for PADI Open Water extended dive times outlined above (see 2.1), the maximum depth for this dive is 10m/33ft. This dive must be approved by the Dive Operations Manager as it can only be used at times where it will not have a detrimental effect on other scheduled dives.


2.3 Air requirements

All divers entering the water for open water dives must have sufficient starting pressure to complete a 50-minute dive to 18m, and dive staff is expected to check starting pressure for all divers under their supervision before entering the water. Our optimal minimum starting pressure is 180 bar or 2700 psi. Divers should inform their dive professional when they reach 100 bar or 1450 psi and must begin their ascent with a minimum of 70 bar or 1050 psi. All divers for both confined and open water dives must be on the surface with no less than 50 bar or 900 psi. While PADI Professionals will monitor air consumption wherever possible, all qualified divers should also take responsibility for monitoring their own air consumption and communicating with dive leaders as necessary.


2.4 Safety stops

A safety stop at 5 meters for a minimum of 3 minutes (5 minutes preferred) must be performed prior to surfacing from all open water dives. Exceptions to this include missing diver procedures and emergency recalls as stated in the emergency procedures.


2.5 Surface interval

A surface interval which ensures all divers enter the water in pressure group A (according to the PADI RDP) must be adhered to at all times. Where logistically possible a 3-hour surface interval will be employed, which guarantees an ending pressure group of A.


2.6 Repetitive diving

The maximum number of open water dives is 4 per day for PADI Professionals and 2 dives a day for students except when additional courses (for example PADI AOW) are being led by an instructor; this is at the discretion of the Dive Operations Manager. The maximum number of consecutive diving days is 6. After this, a compulsory 24-hour de-gas period must be undertaken.


2.7 Flying after diving

Kemujan Divers flying after diving regulations are to be in line with current PADI recommendation which currently state the following:

Single dives - A minimum pre-flight surface interval of 12 hours is suggested.

Repetitive dives and/or multi-day dives - A minimum pre-flight surface interval of 18 hours is suggested.


2.8 Over-profiling

If a diver over profiles, then they should correct their depth and continue with the dive. They will then receive a verbal warning by the Dive Operations Manager. This may result in them missing the next planned dive at the discretion of the Dive Operations Manager. Discipline for over profiles is at the Dive Operations Manager’s discretion, however, continued over profiling may result in the diver being made to re-do areas of their dive training such as peak performance buoyancy to ensure that their dive skills are up to standard.

In the event of severe over profiling, the dive may be aborted at the discretion of the dive leader, in which case the buddy pair must abort the dive by ascending at a safe rate of no more than 18 meters per minute up to 5 meters and perform a 5 minute safety stop before ascending to the surface. No dive is to come within 3 pressure groups of the NDL on the RDP table or 5 minutes on the NDL on a computer.


2.9 Supervision

At least one member of dive staff (PADI Professionals or equivalent) must be present on all boats where students or staff are taking part in in-water activities.

Kemujan Divers dive standards are more conservative than those of PADI. We have set our standards to incorporate student: staff ratios feasible for the organizations with whom we work with and the conditions under which we dive.

Where feasible, an additional dive professional will be employed to cover any unexpected illness within our professional team. If, however, unforeseen circumstances do arise, Operation Kemujan Divers reserves the right to revert to PADI standards on supervising divers. This will be a decision made by the Kemujan Divers representative on-site based on the advice of the Dive Operations Manager.


2.10 PADI training courses

All PADI training courses are to be in-water supervised by a qualified and registered PADI instructor. In cases of 5 or more students, the Instructor must be assisted by a PADI Divemaster. For 4 students or less no Divemaster is required. The maximum ratio is 8 students to each Instructor + Divemaster pairing. The maximum ratio is 4 students when only an Instructor is present. These maximum ratios may be reduced depending on site and conditions.


 2.11 All non-training dives and snorkels

All dives, snorkels and in-water activities are to be led and supervised by a dive professional. The maximum ratio for in-water supervision is 6 volunteers: 1 dive professional. Depending on conditions dive professionals may choose out of water supervision as the most effective form of supervision for snorkelers, for example, this may be shore or boat cover. This must first be approved by the Dive Operations Manager.

All certified divers and snorkelers must in be buddy pairs at all times during in-water activities, all buddy pairs must stay in close contact at all times. Teams of snorkelers in areas where there is boat traffic must carry a surface marker buoy (SMB) with them so that they are clearly visible.

Dive Professionals may dive in a three in accordance with PADI regulations. At no point are divers allowed to dive solo.

Neither divemaster trainees nor contracted science staff is included as students in the supervision ratios. Divemaster trainees must not be used as PADI professionals in the ratios at any time. However, if a member of science staff collecting their own data, who is also a renewed PADI professional, has 3 or less students under their direct supervision, they may act as both a scientist and a PADI professional in these circumstances.


3. Kemujan Divers Dive Procedures

All diving with Kemujan Divers is to be done within the Kemujan Divers dive standards stated above and must be in line with PADI standards and procedures. Where diving outside of recreational limits takes place at Kemujan Divers expedition sites, this is restricted to appropriately qualified divers who are not Kemujan Divers volunteers, and who accept responsibility during these activities. All divers participating in such activities require their own suitable diving insurance and risk assessment, and non-recreational diving takes place at the discretion of the Dive Operations Manager and other senior site management. Kemujan Divers provide on-site and logistical support only.


3.1 General dive and boat procedures

It is the responsibility of the Boat Leaders to complete a roster slate before departure. The date, departure time, destination and names of all the divers and snorkelers on the boat, together with their starting air pressure should be recorded on the slate; this slate must be handed into the diving base (e.g. person on radio duty) or boat where diving takes place from a liveaboard or full-day trip.

Once on the boat, the Boat Leader must ensure the required safety equipment is on board and all divers have required safety equipment. The Boat Leader or Captain must ensure working communication with the base or local authorities exists (e.g. perform an initial radio check before leaving the site).

On arrival at the dive site, the Boat Leader should make a visual assessment of the site to be dived. The Boat Leader will then brief the divers on the key features of the dive site, any potential hazards, the duration, and profile of the dive (max depth; max dive time; safety stop; minimum return tank pressure; recall signal and other underwater signals).

Before any divers entering the water, a second communication check is completed confirming contact with the base. At sites where mobile phone signal exists at dive sites, a battery and signal check will suffice, but where radio communication is used, a full communication check must be carried out.

If the dive site was chosen is unsuitable for diving that day (e.g. strong currents, high winds), the Dive Leader will abort the dive at that site and proceed to an alternative site after informing the base of the change in plan. The Boat Leader will then assign buddy pairs, ensure that each buddy pair has completed their buddy check, and ensure that the details of the air pressure of each diver before entry is noted on the slate boat roster.

During the period when the divers are underwater, the boat skipper must remain alert and watch the surface for divers.

Divers are to ascend slowly and safely from each dive. The ascent rate for all divers is as per the PADI standard rate of a maximum 18m per minute. The ascent to the surface should only begin after completion of the required safety stop at 5 meters. If a diver fails to return to the vicinity of the boat by the time of the ascent an SMB is to be deployed during the safety stop to allow the boat to locate the divers before surfacing.

The boat driver will help the divers aboard the boat upon surfacing.

Once all divers are on board the dive leader must note the remaining air pressure, maximum depth and maximum dive time for each diver and record the information on the roster slate. On return to the base, the roster is handed into the radio room for the information to be written up onto a paper copy.


3.2 Emergency procedures

All staff is to be briefed on emergency procedures. Copies of the Kemujan Divers risk assessments, emergency action plans, and evacuation procedures are to be available to staff throughout the season.


3.3 Missing diver procedures

Please refer to emergency recall plans – missing diver or snorkeler. If a diver loses sight of their buddy, they must stay where they are and search for no longer than one minute in the immediate area before ascending to the surface at a safe rate (maximum 18m per min) omitting the safety stop only if they have remained within  Kemujan Divers diving standards. The diver should then reunite with their buddy on the surface. If the diver has dived outside of the recommended profile, they must complete necessary safety stops according to PADI’s Recreational Dive Planner slate or eRDP ML. If the diver is still unable to locate their buddy, they must signal immediately to the boat who will recall all divers/ snorkelers from the water (using recall methods stated below) and begin following the missing diver procedures as stated in the recall plan – missing diver or snorkeler.


3.4 Injured diver procedures

Injured divers are to be brought to the surface at the safe maximum ascent rate of 18m per minute. If they have dived within Kemujan Divers standards then the safety stop may be omitted, if however, either the victim or rescuer, have dived outside of the profile they must complete necessary safety stops according to RDP regulations providing their injuries mean adhering to the safety stop does not put them under additional risk. On reaching the surface the rescuing diver is to alert the dive boat by using a visual or audible safety signal.


3.5 Boat recall procedures

If at any point during the dive the boat needs to recall all divers and snorkelers the recall system will be 3 long revs of the engine followed by a pause and another 3 long revs or continuous banging of metal on metal, they should ascend at the safe rate of 18m per minute having deployed an SMB at 5m. If the dive has remained within PADI open water dive standards, they must omit the safety stop and return directly to the surface. If the diver has dived outside of the profile, they must complete the necessary safety stops as advised by the RDP.


4. Dive equipment requirements

4.1 PADI dive training

All students taking part in PADI dive training must have all equipment and required materials as stated in the PADI standards. All PADI professionals teaching/assisting with PADI training must also have the required materials and equipment as stated in the course standards.


4.2 Certified divers

All certified divers are responsible for diving within Kemujan Divers standards, therefore must have the following monitoring devices;

Depth gauge.

Submersible pressure gauge (SPG).

Timing device (compulsory).

Both dive computers and compasses are recommended, however, Kemujan Divers do not set this as a compulsory requirement as all certified divers do still dive with a dive professional.

All divers and snorkelers must wear appropriate protection from the temperature and environment; this is often dependent on site however long wetsuits are generally suitable; long wetsuits are not compulsory in all of our Indonesian dive sites.

All dive professionals must carry one audible (whistle) and one visual (Surface Marker Buoy) safety-signaling device. It is recommended that certified divers diving with a professional should also have either an audible or visual signaling device.

Groups of snorkelers should always carry an SMB to signal their presence to boat traffic. There should be a minimum of 1 SMB per 6 snorkelers. Groups should still be divided into buddy pairs, and all individuals must stay within 5 meters of each other and 5 meters of the SMB.


5. Required safety equipment

In the case of shore diving, safety equipment should be easily accessible in the case of an emergency. Site-specific emergency procedures should be explained to each dive professional before any in-water activity from the shore and it must be ensured that the professionals are happy with how to use the equipment if the situation should arise. Equipment available at each site should include a minimum of:

Oxygen kit suitable for both breathing and non-breathing patient with sufficient oxygen supply to return to the site.

First aid kit including hot water thermos and vinegar to deal with marine organism injuries.

Each dive boat must have the following equipment on board. It is the responsibility of the dive leader to check all equipment is on board before each dive. It is also the responsibility of the dive operations manager to regularly check all equipment is in good working order.

Oxygen kit suitable for both breathing and non-breathing patient with sufficient oxygen supply to return to the site.

First aid kit including hot water thermos and vinegar to deal with marine organism injuries.

A floatation device/life ring.

A radio for contact to the base and other dive boats.

A fully completed dive roster detailing all volunteers, students, and staff on the boat.


6. Definitions of Roles and Responsibilities

6.1 Dive Operations Manager

It is the responsibility of the Dive Operations Manager to ensure that all dives and in-water activities are scheduled and planned ensuring that staffing ratios meet Kemujan Divers and PADI requirements.

Ensure that student record files are accurately completed and kept for all student divers.

Ensure that all PADI forms for student divers; certified divers and PADI professionals are correctly completed before any in-water activities.

The Dive Operations Manager must ensure that all PADI training courses meet PADI requirements.

Ensure that all non–training dives, snorkels, and in-water activities meet Kemujan Divers standards.

A hard copy of all dive rosters must be reviewed, and a record must be kept.

All dive professionals, students, volunteers, and visitors must be fully briefed on Kemujan Divers dive standards and procedures before any in-water

Ensure that all divers, including a PADI professional, undertake a check dive before any other dive activity. The exception to this being PADI open water.

Overseeing the care and maintenance of all dive equipment including boats, compressors, dive equipment and safety equipment.

All other duties and responsibilities as stated in individual contracts.


6.2 Dive Instructors

It is the dive instructor’s duty to carry out dive training as required of them by the dive operations manager.

It is the dive instructor’s responsibility to ensure all training is done within PADI and Kemujan Divers standards.

Ensure that student record files are accurately completed and kept for all student divers.

Ensure that all PADI forms are correctly completed before any in-water activities and that all students meet the requirements for their course. Any other duties and responsibilities as stated in individual contracts.


6.3 Divemaster’s and Dive Leaders

Dive leaders are defined as a PADI Divemaster or above or guides from an alternative certifying agency to PADI who have been assigned to lead and supervise in water activities. Their roles are as follows:

Ensure that all diving is done within Kemujan Divers dive standards and PADI Standards and procedures.

Have knowledge of Kemujan Divers Emergency Action Plans (EAP’s).

Plan the dives/ snorkels as directed by the Dive Operations Manager, including assigning buddy pairs.

Brief all divers and snorkelers before any in-water activities.

Ensure that buddy checks are carried out and each diver carries with them the required safety equipment.

Ensure that all dive procedures are met including completed dive roster forms, radio checks, etc.

When supervising boat dives and snorkels ensure that all necessary medical and safety equipment is on board.

It is the Dive Leader’s responsibility to carry out all duties, which are required of them by the dive operations manager and their individual contracts.


6.4 Certified divers

It is the responsibility of all certified divers to ensure that they follow all Operation Kemujan Divers dive standards and procedures and that all dives are performed within PADI standards.

Certified divers must listen carefully to dive briefings and follow the instructions of the dive leader.

Certified divers must be fully aware of all emergency procedures and recall systems.

All divers must carry out buddy checks before each dive.

It is the responsibility of all divers to ensure that their equipment is in safe working order and that they have all the required safety equipment.


7. Insurance

All Dive Professionals are to have professional liability insurance as required by PADI and stated in Operation Kemujan Divers diver contract. For all students, volunteers and science staff the activity of diving is covered by the Operation Kemujan Divers insurance policy if done within Operation Kemujan Divers dive standards.


8. Night dive specific standards and procedures

Night dives are to be undertaken only by advanced divers or above. The exception to this is when a night dive is completed as part of the Advanced Open Water course or as an individual Adventure Dive under PADI standards.

The maximum depth for a night dive is 14 meters. The maximum dive time remains 50 minutes including the 5-minute safety stop at 5 meters. All divers must enter the water at pressure group A or be completely off-gassed.

The supervision levels remain the same as stated in the general standards and procedures.

Each diver must have at least one main torch, between the buddy pair there must also be a backup torch. A glow tube or Cyalume stick should be attached to the tank valve of each diver.

Dive Boat:
The dive boat must remain moored in a stationary position, the mooring line/ shot line is to be marked with a strobe at the surface to indicate the location of the boat, a glow tube should be placed at 5 meters to indicate the position for Safety stop, a third tube is also placed at 10mtrs. Throughout the dive boat crew should remain on the surface and alert for surfacing divers. Each boat should carry equipment as stated in the general standards but also carry a dive Lamp and a Lamp suitable for a surface search.






Dive Policy Standards and Procedures 2019

Last updated: May 31, 2019